By Julia Lynch
This ebook asks why a few nations dedicate the lion's proportion in their social coverage assets to the aged, whereas others have a extra balanced repertoire of social spending. faraway from being the result of calls for for welfare spending through strong age-based teams in society, the 'age' of welfare is an accidental final result of how that social courses are manage. the way in which that politicians use welfare kingdom spending to compete for votes, alongside both programmatic or particularistic strains, locks those early institutional offerings into position. So whereas society is altering - getting older, divorcing, relocating out and in of the exertions strength over the lifestyles path in new methods - social guidelines don't evolve to trap up. the outcome, in occupational welfare states like Italy, the USA, and Japan, is social spending that favors the aged and leaves working-aged adults and kids principally to fend for themselves.
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Additional resources for Age in the Welfare State: The Origins of Social Spending on Pensioners, Workers, and Children (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics)
During and immediately after the Second World War, most countries with occupationalist welfare states considered legislative proposals to introduce substantial elements of the citizenship-based, Beveridgean model pioneered in victorious Britain (Ferrera 1993). Some countries succeeded in this agenda, introducing forms of citizenship-based coverage for children, women, and others with weak ties to the labor market. Other states, however, did not, and continued on a path toward growing expenditures on an aging core work force and occupational pensioners, with minimal coverage for the rest of the population.
The key to understanding this difference is the very different ways that political competition has been organized in the two countries for much of the postwar period. Italian politics has been characterized by an extremely high degree of political particularism. By contrast, politics in the Netherlands has tended toward the programmatic end of the spectrum. This difference in the mode of political competition between Italy and the Netherlands explains why the Netherlands adopted citizenship-based welfare programs, such as universal pensions, universal family allowances, and a basic social minimum, while Italy did not.
Tax policy is strong, particularly in the ﬁelds of housing and private pensions, and certainly does not counterbalance the extreme elderly orientation of direct expenditures. In sum, the best available information on tax expenditures for social policy points in the same direction as the information on direct expenditures. With the possible exception of Australia, which also had an ambiguous ranking based on the ENSR for direct expenditures, tax data conﬁrm the relative age orientation of different welfare states derived from measures of direct expenditures alone.
Age in the Welfare State: The Origins of Social Spending on Pensioners, Workers, and Children (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics) by Julia Lynch