By P. R. Sreemahadevan Pillai
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Extra info for A Comprehensive Laboratory Manual for Environmental Science and Engineering
So it can be measured by eye or photometric means. Provisions must be made to overcome the influence of chlorides. Manganese can also be determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Persulphate method is suitable because pretreatment of samples is not required. Chloride concentration is reduced by using mercuric sulphate. Persulphate oxidises manganese to permanganate in the presence of silver nitrate as catalyst. The colour intensity is observed at a wavelength of 525 nm in a spectrophotometer.
It is primarily due to salts of weak acids, although weak or strong bases may also contribute. Alkalinity is usually imparted by bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxide. 02 N sulphuric acid and is reported in terms of CaCO3 equivalent. 3, the titration is conducted in two steps. 2, the point at which phenolphthalein indicator turns from pink to colourless. This value corresponds to the points for conversion of carbonate to bicarbonate ion. 5, corresponds to methyl orange end point, which corresponds to the equivalence points for the conversion of bicarbonate ion to carbonic acid.
Principle Coagulants are used in water treatment plants (i) to remove natural suspended and colloidal matter, (ii) to remove material which do not settle in plain sedimentation, and (iii) to assist in filtration. Alum [Al2(SO4)3. 18H2O] is the most widely used coagulant. When alum solution is added to water, the molecules dissociate to yield SO2– and Al3+. The +ve species combine with negatively charged colloidal to neutralise 4 part of the charge on the colloidal particle. Thus, agglomeration takes place.
A Comprehensive Laboratory Manual for Environmental Science and Engineering by P. R. Sreemahadevan Pillai